## Hazardous Waste Treatment Formulas

note: Avogadro's number = N0 = 6.02 x 1023 atoms/gram-atom

#### Inputs:

 disintegration constant (KT) second^-1day^-1hour^-1minute^-1year^-1
 radionuclide mass (M) kilogramatomic mass unitattogramcarat metriccentigramdecigramdekagramdramexagramfemtogramgigagramgraingramhundredweight long ukhundredweight short USmegagrammicrogrammilligramnanogramouncepetagrampicogramplanck masspennyweightpoundslugsolar mass sunstoneteragramton longton metricton shorttonnetroy ounceyoctogramyottagramzeptogramzettagram
 source strength or total radioactivity (Q) becquerelcurie

#### Conversions:

 disintegration constant (KT)= 0 = 0second^-1
 radionuclide mass (M)= 0 = 0gram
 source strength or total radioactivity (Q)= 0 = 0becquerel

#### Solution:

 radionuclide atomic weight (W)= NOT CALCULATED

#### Other Units:

Change Equation
Select to solve for a different unknown
radioactive material and nuclear waste decay
 solve for number of nuclei remaining after time period solve for initial number of nuclei solve for disintegration constant solve for time period
half life
 solve for half life time solve for disintegration constant
source strength
 solve for becquerels solve for radionuclide atomic weight solve for radionuclide mass solve for disintegration constant, inverse time
quality factor
 equivalent dose - measures the amount of effective biological damage caused by radiation absorbed dose - measure of the amount of energy absorbed into material solve for quality factor
unit conversion factors
 equivalent dose - SI unit is rem (roentgen equivalent man) - US unit is sievert absorbed dose - SI unit is rad - US unit is gray total radioactivity - SI unit is becquerel - US unit is curie
Where
 N = number of nuclei remaining after a time period N0 = initial number of nuclei Kb and KT = disintegration constant t1/2 = half life time of radionuclide Q = total radioactivity or source strength N0 = Avogadro's number, 6.02 x 1023 atom/gram-atom W = atomic weight

References - Books:
1) P. Aarne Vesilind, J. Jeffrey Peirce and Ruth F. Weiner. 1994. Environmental Engineering. Butterworth Heinemann. 3rd ed.

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